A case of the pot calling the kettle black, but I'm gonna quote Wikipedia.
Take this how you will, but according to Wikipedia:
"a codec is a software or hardware tool that encodes or decodes audio or video into or from some audio or video format."
The tool is the codec, the output is a file.
Thus LAME is an audio codec. X264 is a video codec. PCM WAV is an audio format, created by a codec.
If you can prove otherwise, I'd be more than happy to eat my words.